تجد هنا كل التقارير و البحوث المدرسية ، مناهج مملكة البحرين
 
الرئيسيةاليوميةس .و .جبحـثقائمة الاعضاءالمجموعاتالتسجيلدخول

شاطر | 
 

 بحث : وصف مدينة المنامة Manama

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
DeViL
مدير عام
مدير عام


عدد المساهمات : 37
|| النقاط || : 2177
تاريخ التسجيل : 04/04/2011

مُساهمةموضوع: بحث : وصف مدينة المنامة Manama   الثلاثاء أبريل 05, 2011 5:27 am

Manama is the capital
and largest city of Bahrain,
with an approximate population of 155,000 people.



Long
an important trading center in the Persian Gulf , Manama is home to a very diverse population.
After periods of Portuguese and Persian control and invasions from the Al Sauds
and Oman, Bahrain
established itself as an independent nation during the 19th Century period of
British hegemony. In the 20th Century, Bahrain's oil wealth helped spur fast
growth and in the 1990s a concerted diversification effort lead to expansion in
other industries and helped transform Manama into an important financial hub in
the Middle East.





History

Manama was mentioned in
Islamic chronicles at least as far back as 1345. It was conquered by PortugalManama was
declared a free port in 1958, and in 1971 it became the capital of independent Bahrain.
in
1521 and then by the Persians in 1602. Since [1783] it has been under the
control of the AL-Khalifa dynasty.



The
north of Bahrain's main island,
which is dominated by Manama
today, has seen human activity for roughly 5,000 years, as is indicated from
the remains around Bahrain Fort . Early inhabitants are often associated with
the historical Dilmun Civilisation though the historical records of Dilmun are
scanty. The islanders were soon, however, disturbed by a series of invaders,
beginning with the Assyrians during the BC period and ending with the
Arabs. During these many centuries Bahrain was a trading post whose
importance fluctuated depending on which empire dominated. Manama and its inhabitants were first
introduced to Islam during the 7th century and by the 9th century began to lean
to a more conservative almost socialist belief system that caused considerable
friction with the surrounding Muslim lands. The Qarmatians, as this group was
known, ransacked Mecca
in 930 during the sacred Hajj , killing hundreds before escaping with the much
revered Black Stone. A feud with the Baghdad-based Abbasids less than 50 years
later saw the Qarmatians leave the town.





The next major foreign intervention in Bahrain came at the beginning of the 16th
century when the Portuguese naval fleets arrived, quickly crushing the small
local population in Manama
and the surrounding areas. Bahrain Fort was built during this era, probably to
keep out the Persians who nevertheless managed a series of invasions as the
whole island alternated between the Portuguese , Persians, and Omanis for the
following two centuries. Once the Persians eventually forced the other two out,
it was not long before the Al Khalifa amily appeared from nearby Qatar,
to take control of the whole of the island at the end of the 18th century. The
new rulers, whose dynasty continues to this day, sought protection against the
Persians from the British Empire , which by that time had established its
hegemony in much of the Middle East, and Manama
entered a period of colonial influence. Colonial interest only increased when
oil was discovered 30 km (19 mi) south of Manama in the centre of the island and first
extracted in 1931. After World War II , Bahrain moved slowly towards independence and
eventually in 1971 the British pulled out leaving Manama in charge of its own affairs. This was
the beginning of a period that has seen it grow and flourish primarily due to
the considerable wealth accumulated through oil production and processing









Geography









Historically, Manama
has been restricted to what is now known as the Manama Souq and the Manama Fort
(now the Ministry of Interior) to its south. However the city has now grown to
include a number of newer suburban developments as well as older neighboring
villages that have been engulfed by the growth of the city. The


neighborhoods of Manama
today include:



  • Manama Souq
  • Adliya
  • Bu
    Ashira

  • Bu
    Ghazal

  • Diplomatic
    Area

  • Ghuraifa
  • Gudaibiya
  • Gufool
  • Hoora
  • Juffair
  • Mahooz
  • Noaim
  • Ras
    Rumman

  • Seef
  • Segaya
  • Sulmaniya
  • Umm Al Hassam
  • Zinj





Economy








Manama is the focal point of the
Bahraini
economy. While oil has decreased in importance
in recent years due to depleting reserves and growth in other industries,
Petroleum is still the mainstay of the economy. Heavy industry , banking and
finance , and tourism are among the industries which have experienced recent
growth. Several multinationals have facilities and offices in and around Manama . The primary
industry in Manama
itself is financial services, with over two hundred financial institutions and
banks based in the CBD and the Diplomatic Area. Manama
is a financial hub for the Persian Gulf region
and a center of Islamic banking. There is also a large retail sector in the
shopping malls around Seef, while the center of Manama is dominated by small workshops and
traders.











Transport






Manama is
the main hub of the country's road network. At the moment the city's road
network is undergoing substantial development to ameliorate the situation of
traffic in the city. Due to the fact that it is the capital and the main city
in the country, where most of the government and the commercial offices and
facilities are established, along with the entertainment centers, and the
countries fast growth, vehicle population is increasing rapidly.


The outline of the present road network was developed in the early 1930s,
soon after the discovery of Oil . The four main islands and all the towns and
villages are linked by well-constructed roads. There were 3,164 km
(1,966 mi) of roadways in 2002, of which 2,433 km (1,512 mi)
were paved. A Causeway stretching over 2.8 km (2 mi), connect Manama with Muharraq
Island , and another
bridge joins Sitra to the main island. A four-lane highway atop a 24 km
(15 mi) Causeway , linking Bahrain
with the Saudi Arabian mainland via the island
of Umm an-Nasan was completed in
December, 1986, and financed by Saudi Arabia. In 2000,
there were 172,684 passenger vehicles and 41,820 commercial vehicles.


Bahrain's port of Mina Sulman an accommodate 16 oceangoing
vessels drawing up to 11 m (36 ft). In 2001, Bahrain had a
merchant fleet of eight ships of 1,000 GRT or over, totaling 270,784 GRT. Private
vehicles and taxis are the primary means of transportation in the city.



Buses


Manama has a comprehensive bus service which is far more economical than
other modes of transport with fares around 150 to 200 Fils allows you to travel
by bus. Some bus routes link to other towns such as Muharraq and Essa town .







Air traffic


Bahrain
International Airport
is located on Muharraq Island,
approximately 7 km (4 mi) from the CBD. It is a premier hub
airport in the Middle East.
Strategically located in the Northern Persian Gulf between the
major markets of Saudi Arabia
and Iran, the airport has one of the
widest range and highest frequency of regional services with connections to
major international destinations in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America.








Education








Manama has a wide range of universities, colleges and
schools.



  • Ahlia
    University

  • Applied
    Science University

  • Arab
    Open University

  • Arabian
    Gulf University

  • Bahrain
    Institute of Banking and Finance

  • King
    Abdulaziz University College of Health Sciences

  • Delmon University
  • New York
    Institute of Technology

  • RCSI-Bahrain
  • Bahrain School







Geography




The city is located in the north-eastern corner
of Bahrain on a small peninsula. As in
the rest of Bahrain,
the land is generally flat (or gently rolling) and Arid











Culture











The country attracts a large number of foreigners and
foreign influences, with just under one third of the population hailing from
abroad .Alcohol is legal in the country, with bars and nightclubs operating in
the city, however the government is proposing a ban for Muslims. Bahrain does
not recognise women's rights or rights. Football is the most popular sport in Manama (and the rest of the country), with 3 teams from Manama participating
in the Bahraini Premier
League.




تحياتيDeViL




.
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://bh-p.ba7r.org
 
بحث : وصف مدينة المنامة Manama
استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 1 من اصل 1

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى
منتديات التقارير والبحوث المدرسية - البحرين :: البحوث والتقارير المدرسية :: المرحلة الثانوية :: تقارير وبحوث المواد الأدبية :: تقارير وبحوث الإنجليزي-
انتقل الى: